A Subquery is a normal T-SQL query that is nested inside another query. They are created using parentheses when you have a SELECT statement that serve as the basis for the either part of the data or the condition in another query.
Subqueries are generally used to fill one of couple of needs -
1. Break a query up into a series of a logical steps.
2. Provide a listing to be the target of a WHERE clause together with [IN|ESISTS|ANY|ALL].
3. TO provide a lookup driven by each individual record in a parent query.
SELECT SelectList FROM SomeTable WHERE SomeColumn = (SELECT SingleColumn FROM SomeTable WHERE Condition that results in only one row returned)